Bio-Digesters / Bio Toilets/ FRP Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Toilet

Bio-Digesters / Bio Toilets/ FRP Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Toilet

An Overview of Bio-Digesters / Bio Toilets/FRP Swatch Bharat Abhiyan Toilet

    Human Waste Disposal
  • Traditionally human waste is buried under the soil/ice using deep trenches. In non glacier regions the waste is collected and used as fertilizer in the field. Incineration and chemical treatment of human waste have also been attempted for minimizing the problem. However, all these methods are either unhygienic or not practically viable alternatives.
  • Biological treatment is an attractive approach for solving the problem, but decreased metabolic activities of the microorganisms, freezing of the substrate, non-availability of conventional energy sources and hilly terrains are some of the hurdles which need to be overcome to make the process practically possible.
  • Problems of Human Waste
  • Human waste disposal, in high altitude and low temperature areas, is a major problem. The problem is further aggravated in glaciers where ambient temperature drops to – 40 deg C and lower
  • The low temperature delays/stop the natural biodegradation of the waste leading to its preservation (accumulation) for long time. Local heating by direct sunlight exposes the waste buried in the ice causing aesthetic nuisance and foul smell. The melting ice takes the waste to rivers disturbing the aquatic eco-system.
  • More over human waste is also responsible for spreading of water borne diseases like Typhoid, Cholera, shigellosis, amebic, dysenteries, Diarrhea etc

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED BY DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT, MINISTRY OF DEFENCE

  • DRDE has developed an innovative technology for disposal of human waste in eco-friendly manner at locations where temperature drops to –40 deg C or lower. It is not only useful for glacier but to other snow bound areas of any altitude prevailing in India. The process culminates in to treated effluent which is free from pathogens and is also environmentally acceptable.
  • During waste treatment color less, odor less, inflammable biogas (methane) is generated as a byproduct which can be used for various energy intensive activities like lighting, water and room heating.
    The Technology has Two Major Components
  • Low temperature active inoculums
  • Temperature controlled bio-digester
  • A consortium of anaerobic bacteria has been formulated and adopted to work at very low temperature. This is the component which acts as inoculums to the biodigester and converts the organic waste into methane and carbon dioxide. The anaerobic process inactivates the pathogens responsible for water born diseases.
  • Bio-digester serves as reaction vessel for bio-meth nation and provides the anaerobic conditions and required temperature for the bacteria. The optimum temperature is maintained by microbial heat, insulation of the reactor (required only in glacier installation) and solar heating
  • Suitable for subzero temperature of Himalayan region as well as glaciers.
  • No dependence on the limited and costly conventional energy sources.
  • Easy to transport and install in hilly terrains
  • Maintenance free, continuous biological process.
  • Elimination of pathogens
  • Generation of odorless and inflammable biogas.
  • Economically viable.